In Stage 3, medium CNS depression, the user experiences confusion, delirium, and impaired muscle coordination (ataxia). Finally, Stage 4 is late CNS depression, which can cause stupor, seizure, coma, and death. Inhalant is an umbrella term that refers to numerous chemicals that can be inhaled to produce intoxication. These chemicals can be found in various household goods and cleaning supplies such as glues, aerosol sprays, paint thinner, nail polish remover, gasoline, whipped cream, and felt-tip markers. A notable inhalant is nitrous oxide, a gas used as an anesthetic in surgeries and dentistry. These substances are typically unregulated and can be easily purchased or found in products around the house.

  1. It has since been marketed under more than 100 trade names, including Amepromat, Quivet, and Zirpon.
  2. Metabolism and excretion vary depending on the chemical in question, but half-lives tend to be very short.
  3. Some CNS stimulants have been modified to improve their effect, for example, a methyl group was added to amphetamine to make methamphetamine which lasts longer than amphetamine, penetrates the brain better, and is less likely to detrimentally affect the heart.
  4. Central nervous system depressants are medications or substances that slow brain activity, making them useful for treating anxiety, panic, and sleep disorders.
  5. Another safeguard for nitrous oxide use is scavenging systems to remove nitrous oxide from the air and prevent toxicity in patients and dental staff.

Synaptic plasticity participated in sustained antidepressant

Opioids are strong pain relievers that are obtained from opiates like heroin and oxycodone. They have a high risk of becoming addictive, which is why they are often prescribed in small doses for only short periods. Sometimes these effects alcohol vs marijuana is one safer than the other can be mild, but they can also be severe and potentially dangerous. If you or a loved one is struggling with an addiction to a central nervous system depressant, know that you are not alone and there are treatment options available.

Medical causes

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Chronic alcohol use can also lead to dependence, addiction, and withdrawal symptoms when attempting to stop usage of the drug. Eletriptan displayed saturable uptake kinetics into hCMEC/D3 cells, while the cellular uptake of almotriptan and sumatriptan revealed no saturation at the tested concentration range. Eletriptan, almotriptan, and sumatriptan uptake were driven by a proton-dependent mechanism, which could indicate the involvement of the H+/OC antiporter. In addition to changing the proton does alcohol used in cooking effect sobriety driving force of a potential transporter, pH manipulation also affects the protonation degree of the compounds (pKa 8.4–9.6, refer Table 1). Changing the protonation degree of the triptans may affect their passive diffusion properties as well as their affinity towards the transporter, since a protonated amine moiety has shown to be essential for the H+/OC antiporter recognition [20, 33]. Thus, the data from the extracellular pH manipulation experiments must be interpreted with caution (Fig. 4).

A common trait among these H+/OC antiporter substrates, is that they are small molecules bearing a secondary or tertiary amine moiety, which is positively charged at physiological relevant pH [33, 34]. provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Data sources include Micromedex (updated 6 May 2024), Cerner Multum™ (updated 6 May 2024), ASHP (updated 10 Apr 2024) and others. Lorazepam, a benzodiazepine with antianxiety, sedative, and anticonvulsant effects, is available for oral, intramuscular, or intravenous routes of administration. Benzodiazepines are a controlled Schedule IV substance because they have a potential for abuse and may lead to dependence.

Treatment for addiction to a central nervous system depressant begins with detox to allow the drugs to exit the system, preferably in rehab or medical facility. After detoxification, a patient will typically move onto a residential inpatient or outpatient treatment program. Drug abuse often co-occurs with other psychological issues, such as depression, and rehab affords individuals struggling with addiction the opportunity for these issues to be addressed with licensed professionals. Because of the way that depressants affect brain chemistry and slow activity, withdrawal can be severe and sudden when an individual stops taking them. Withdrawal symptoms typically begin 12 to 24 hours after the last dose of the drug and are most severe between 24 and 72 hours after this dose. Withdrawal symptoms generally begin to fade after this initial period, known as acute withdrawal; however, some symptoms, known as post-acute withdrawal symptoms (PAWS) may last for up to 24 months.

Sometimes called “benzos,” benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants that are prescribed to treat anxiety, sleep disorders, convulsions, and other acute stress reactions. Benzodiazepines are highly effective in treating anxiety and insomnia due to the sleep-inducing, sedative, and muscle-relaxing properties. While considered safe for short-term treatment, long-term or illicit use can lead to the development of a tolerance, addiction, and inhalant abuse withdrawal symptoms upon cessation or rapid reduction in use. Barbiturates, or “downers,” are a type of CNS depressant that are prescribed to treat anxiety, tension, and sleep disorders. Common barbiturates include Amytal, Luminal (phenobarbital), Mebaral, Nembutal, and Seconal. Barbiturates were previously regarded as a generally safe depressant, but problems with abuse, addiction, and overdose quickly became apparent after widespread prescription.

Patients should be advised that getting out of bed unassisted may result in falling and potential injury if undertaken within 8 hours of receiving lorazepam. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed for at least 24 to 48 hours after receiving lorazepam injectable due to the additive effects on central nervous system depression seen with benzodiazepines in general. Elderly patients should be instructed that lorazepam injection may make them very sleepy for a period longer than 6 to 8 hours following surgery. A Black Box Warning states that concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Now let’s take a closer look at the medication grid for phenobarbital in Table 8.5a.[3] Medication grids are intended to assist students to learn key points about each medication class.

While CNS depressants all share this ability, there are significant differences among substances within this drug class. In particular, some are generally considered to be safer and are prescribed more than others. However, it’s important to note that almost all depressants have the potential to be addictive and should only be used as prescribed. Central nervous system depressants are sometimes called sedatives or tranquilizers, although those terms are more properly applied to specific categories of CNS depressants. Central nervous system depressants are medications or substances that slow brain activity, making them useful for treating anxiety, panic, and sleep disorders.

Mixing alcohol with other CNS depressants magnifies their impact and in many instances can be fatal. These are sometimes prescribed prior to surgery to you help relax during the procedure. Because they’re so powerful, they currently aren’t prescribed for things like anxiety and insomnia as much as they used to be. It rules virtually every other part of your body and mind, including how you feel about and interact with the world around you.